What is GIS?

Geographic Information System integrates hardware, Software and data for the purpose of capturing, visualizing and displaying all the forms of geographically referenced data.It helps you to answer questions and solve problems only by looking at the given data. GIS allows you to view, understand, interpret and visualize the data in some particular ways through which you can derive patterns in the form of maps, globes and charts. It enables you to generate two or three-dimensional images of an area, displaying the natural features such as hills and rivers with some artificial features such as roads and power lines. The GIS database comprises of sets of information called layers, each of which represents a unique type of geographic data.A GIS database can include as many as 100 layers. Thousands of organizations including businesses, governments, educators and scientists, natural resource groups make use of GIS to solve problems and to improve processes.


ArcGIS is a platform that is utilized for designing and managing solutions through the application of Geographic knowledge.With the use of this software it has now become easier to do 3D analysis, use & manage imagery more efficiently and automate common tasks. It is a new platform for delivering GIS capabilities. ArcGIS has enabled more people to make maps easily. These maps work seamlessly across different devices. The software allows you to access vast collections of the maps that are ready-to-use.

Remote Sensing 

Remote Sensing is a term that is used for collecting data about an object without touching it.The data that is collected is analyzed by special instruments that are not in contact with the object that is under investigation. Remote Sensing is broadly classified into two main classes- Active Remote Sensing and Passive Remote Sensing. The technique generally makes use of aerial sensor technologies that detect or classify the objects on earth by means of electromagnetic radiations that are given off by aircraft or satellites. The techniques are diverse and they vary from the traditional methods of visual interpretation to the methods using computer processing.

Remote Sensing Definition 

Remote sensing is the acquisition of information about an object without creating any physical contact with the object that is to be investigated.The data that is collected is then analyzed by instruments that are not in touch with the object. It can also be defined as the technique by which the scanning of the earth by satellite or high-flying aircraft is done in order to obtain information.

Passive Remote Sensing 

Passive remote sensing is a class of Remote Sensing that make use of Passive Remote Sensors.The sensors are used to detect natural radiations that are emitted by the object or by its surrounding areas. The most common source of energy that is measured by Passive Remote Sensors is “Reflected Sunlight”. The energy that is radiated naturally can be detected day or night, as long as the amount of energy is large enough to be recorded. The sensors that are used for Passive Remote Sensing can only be used when there is some naturally occurring energy available. Thus, for all reflected energy, Passive Remote Sensing can only take place when the sun is illuminating the surface of the earth. No reflected is available from the sun at night.

Active Remote Sensing 

Active Remote Sensing is a class of remote Sensing that makes use of Active Remote Sensors.These sensors provide their own source of illumination and they emit radiations that are directed towards the target body that is to be investigated. Active Remote sensors emit energy in order to scan the objects and areas and they then detect and measure the radiations that are reflected or are backscattered from the target body. An active Remote Sensing System is not dependent on the sun's rays or the thermal properties of the earth. The most common type of sensor that are used for Active Remote Sensing is a “RADAR”. Another example of an active remote sensor is LiDAR.

Applications of Remote Sensing 

Ocean applications The technique of remote Sensing can also be used to monitor ocean circulation and current system. It is also used to measure ocean temperature and the wave heights. Remote sensing can also be used to track sea ice or in cases where you want to get a better understanding of the oceans and manage ocean resources.Hazard assessment: It has its importance when there is a need to track hurricanes, earthquakes, erosion, and floods and other natural disasters. The data that is given can be used to asses the effects of natural disasters. Based on the data that is obtained by Remote Sensors some strategies can be made that can be used before and after the disaster.Natural resource management: Monitoring landscapes, land use, mapping wetlands and to point out the wildlife habitats. The data here can be used in order to minimize the damage that urban growth imposes on the environment. Based on this we can decide the best possible ways to protect the natural resources.Coastal applications: Remote Sensing is used as a coastal application. It is used to monitor the changes that occur on the shoreline or even in the case of tracking sediment transport. The data that is obtained by Remote Sensing can also be used for coastal mapping and for preventing erosion.

Thermal Remote Sensing

Thermal Remote Sensing is described as the acquisition of image data in the infrared part of the electromagnetic spectrum.It uses the radiations that are emitted by the surface itself. Thermal infrared is emitted energy that is sensed digitally. Thermal remote sensing is used on areas to assess the heat island, to perform land cover classifications and as an input for models of urban surface atmosphere exchange. Thermal Remote Sensing is a special case of reserving land surface temperature which varies in accordance to the surface energy balance.

Hyperspectral Remote Sensing 

The advances in remote sensing and geographic information that made the way for the development of Hyperspectral remote Sensors.Imagery Spectroscopy also known as Hyperspectral Remote Sensing is a new technology that is presently being investigated by scientists and researchers and it would deal with the detection and identification of minerals, vegetation, man-made materials and backgrounds. It combines imaging and spectroscopy in one system and it often includes large data sets and require new processing methods.